Kinox Dr

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I was glad to leave this charnel house and breathe again the salubrious atmosphere of the streets". Little is known of Knox's wife, Susan Knox, whom he married in They had seven children, but only two of them survived into adulthood.

Before the Anatomy Act of widened the supply, the main legal supply of corpses for anatomical purposes in the UK were those condemned to death and dissection by the courts.

This led to a chronic shortage of legitimate subjects for dissection, and this shortage became more serious as the need to train medical students grew, and the number of executions fell.

In his school Knox ran up against the problem from the start, since—after —the Royal Colleges had increased the anatomical work in the medical curriculum.

If he taught according to what was known as 'French method' the ratio would have had to approach one corpse per pupil. As a consequence, body-snatching became so prevalent that it was not unusual for relatives and friends of someone who had just died to watch over the body until burial, and then to keep watch over the grave after burial, to stop it being violated.

In November , William Hare began a new career when an indebted lodger died on him by chance. Knox was not prosecuted, which outraged many in Edinburgh.

His house was attacked by a mob of 'the lowest rabble of the Old Town,' and windows were broken.

Almost immediately after the Burke and Hare case, the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh began to harry him, and by June they had procured his resignation as the Curator of the museum he had proposed and founded.

In the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh found him guilty of falsifying a student's certificate of attendance a not uncommon practice in private schools and refused to accept any further certificates from him, effectively banning him from teaching in Scotland.

Knox left for London after the death of his wife the remaining children were left with a nephew. He found it impossible to find a university post, and from then until he worked on medical journalism, gave public lectures, and wrote several books, including his most ambitious work, The Races of Men in which he argued that each race was suited to its environment and "perfect in its own way.

In he became the pathological anatomist to the Free Cancer Hospital , London. He joined the medical register at its inception in and practiced obstetrics in Hackney.

On 27 November he was elected an Honorary Fellow of the Ethnological Society of London, where he spoke in public for the last time on 1 July Knox's interest in race began as an undergraduate.

His relevant political views were radical: he was an abolitionist and anti-colonialist who criticised the Boer as "the cruel oppressor of the dark races.

He offered crude characterisations of each racial group: for example the Saxon in which race he included himself "invents nothing", "has no musical ear", lacks "genius", and is so "low and boorish" that "he does not know what you mean by fine art".

While Knox maintained that all races were capable of some form civilized life, he maintained that a vast gulf stood between the limited attainments available to the 'negroid' and to most 'mongoloid' races on one hand and the much greater past achievements and future potential of white men on the other.

The Black, Knox remarked, 'is no more a white man than an ass is a horse or a zebra'. From the perspective of a Lowland Scot Protestant, Knox's racist works espoused extreme racial hostility to Celts in general including the Highland Scots and Welsh people , but particularly the Irish people.

There is no getting over historical facts. Look at Wales, look at Caledonia; it is ever the same. The Orange club of Ireland is a Saxon confederation for the clearing the land of all Papists and Jacobites ; this means Celts.

If left to themselves, they would clear them out, as Cromwell proposed, by the sword; it would not require six weeks to accomplish the work.

But the Encumbered Estates Relief Bill will do it better. In his writings Knox synthesised a perspective on nature from three of the most influential natural historians of his time.

From Cuvier, he took a consciousness of the great epochs of time, of the fact of extinction, and of the inadequacy of the biblical account.

If one had the skill, all living beings could be arranged in their correct placing in a notional table, and one would see both internally and externally the elegant variation of their organs and anatomy according to the principles of connection, unity of composition and compensation.

Goethe is another crucial addition to the Knoxian way of looking at nature. Goethe thought that there were transcendental archetypes in the living world which could be perceived by genus.

If the natural historian were perspicacious enough to examine the creatures in this correct order he could perceive—aesthetically—the archetype that was immanent in the totality of a series, although present in none of them.

Knox wrote that he was concerned to prove the existence of a generic animal, "or in other terms, proving hereditary descent to have a relation primarily to genus or natural family".

This way, he could lay claim to a stability in the natural order at the level of the genus, but let species be extinguished.

Man was a genus; not a species. According to Richards, The Races of Men advocated "a common material origin of life and its evolution by a process of saltatory descent"; that is to say, new species arose not by gradual change but by sudden leaps due to shifts in embryonic development.

For one contemporary reviewer, his claim that "Species is the product of external circumstances, acting through millions of years" was "bold, disgusting, and gratuitous atheism.

In he wrote: "The conversion of one of these species into another cannot be so difficult a matter with Nature, especially when all or most of the specific characters are already present in the young.

Knox is commemorated in the scientific name of a species of African lizard, Meroles knoxii. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the surgeon, anatomist and zoologist. For other uses, see Robert Knox disambiguation.

Robert Knox c. Edinburgh , Scotland. See also: Anatomy murder. This is why, throughout administration, the concentrations of inhaled nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide are continuously measured.

In certain clinical circumstances, administration of nitric oxide by ventilation through a mask is possible for a very short duration 5 to 10 mn.

At the end of the treatment in intensive care, the doctor will gradually reduce the dose of VasoKINOX administered withdrawal stage , by monitoring the change in your condition.

Patients with abnormal heart function: In patients whose hearts are less efficient than normal at pumping blood around the body, nitric oxide can increase the chance of serious side effects occurring, such as the build up of fluid in the lungs, worsening of abnormal heart function, low blood pressure, abnormally slow heart beat, and stopping of the heart.

Using other medicines: Tell your doctor if you are taking, have recently taken any other medicines. Side effects that are very commonly seen affects more than 1 user in 10 in association with VasoKINOX therapy include:.

Side effects that may be seen, but uncommonly affects between 1 user in and 1 user in are:. You should directly inform the personnel if you experience headache while being in close proximity to your child or a patient receiving VasoKINOX.

If any of the side effects becomes serious, or if you notice any side effects not listed in this leaflet, please tell your doctor.

When the cylinder is empty, do not dispose of it. Empty cylinders will be collected by the supplier. Pharmacotherapeutic class: Pulmonary vasodilator.

Molecular formula: NO. Chemical structure. Including relative and absolute stereochemistry : CAS number.

A 5-litre cylinder filled to bar 20, kPa supplies 0. A litre cylinder filled to bar 20, kPa supplies 2. A litre cylinder filled to bar 20, kPa supplies 3.

Mechanism of action. Nitric oxide is produced endogenously by numerous cells within the organism, including those in the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide induces the relaxation of vascular smooth muscles thus resulting in vasodilation by combining with cytosolic guanylate cyclase haeminic iron.

This activates the guanylate-cyclase and increases intracellular concentrations of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate GMPc. An increase in intra-platelet GMPc may be responsible for platelet aggregation inhibition.

Inhaled NO iNO exerts a selective action on pulmonary arterial circulation due to its very short half-life and inhalation route. VasoKINOX induces a reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance PVR and is effective only in the presence of existing vasoconstriction in the ventilated area of the lung.

The effect of iNO is dependent on alveolar recruitment. Absorption and distribution. Inhaled NO is diffused via a systemic pathway.

At this level of O 2 saturation, iNO mainly fixes to the oxyhaemoglobin, which transforms into methaemoglobin and nitrates. When O 2 saturation is low, iNO fixes onto deoxyhaemoglobin to form an intermediate compound, nitrosylhaemoglobin, which then decomposes into nitrogen oxides and methaemoglobin in the presence of O 2.

Nitric oxide reacts with O 2 and water to form nitrogen dioxide NO 2 and nitrites, which react with oxyhaemoglobin to produce methaemoglobin and nitrates.

Thus, the principal metabolites of iNO found in the systemic circulation are methaemoglobin and nitrates.

The very short half-life of iNO is due to the haemoglobin circulating in the vicinity of its points of diffusion through the alveolocapillary membrane which is responsible for its deactivation.

Nitrates are eliminated mainly in urine whereas methaemoglobin is metabolised in several hours into haemoglobin by endogenic reductases. Clinical trials.

A review of published literature was conducted studying the efficacy of iNO in the treatment of perioperative pulmonary hypertension PHT in both paediatric and adult patients in the context of cardiac surgery.

Paediatric populations. The selective pulmonary anti-hypertensive effect of iNO in this population has been demonstrated in randomised studies comparing iNO with nitrogen N 2 , conventional treatment, hyperventilation, milrinone, sildenafil, prostacyclin and iloprost.

A total of 12 randomised controlled trials involving a total of paediatric patients treated with iNO were assessed as published study reports for the indication of perioperative PHT in conjunction with cardiac surgery.

Four of these were considered key studies: Miller et al and Russell et al which were placebo-controlled double blind studies and Day et al and Morris et al which were controlled against conventional therapy.

Their designs and results are detailed below. Miller et al Was the largest of the key studies. This double-blind study included children with a median age of 3 months range 1 to 5 months.

The primary endpoint was the number of PHT crises during treatment. Unadjusted relative risk was 0.

Relative risk adjusted for dispersion was 0. Russell et al Was a double blind study that included 40 children age range 2 days to 6.

Patients were randomised to receive iNO 80 ppm or placebo over 20 minutes after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Day et al Was an open study including 38 children undergoing corrective surgery or heart transplantation due to congenital heart disease.

The primary endpoint was the number of patient with PHT crises during treatment. There was no significant difference in the number of patients presenting PHT crises between the two treatment groups.

Morris et al In this prospective, randomised crossover study, the patients received iNO 5 ppm for 15 minutes then 40 ppm for 15 minutes versus control therapy mild alkalosis pH 7.

The efficacy endpoints were cardiac output and other haemodynamic parameters. Inhaled NO and hyperventilation were both effective at lowering PAP and PVR, producing significant changes compared to baseline, but there were no significant differences between the two treatments.

Compared to baseline, hyperventilation resulted in a significant increase in the mean systemic vascular resistance SVR index and in a significant reduction in cardiac index, and iNO did not have significant effects on systemic haemodynamics.

The differences between the two treatments for SVR Index and cardiac index were not statistically significant. In summary for the 12 randomised controlled paediatric trials.

Adult populations. A total of 10 prospective randomised controlled trials involving adult patients treated with iNO were assessed as published study reports for the indication of perioperative PHT in conjunction with cardiac surgery.

Four of these were considered key studies: Argenziano et al which was a placebo-controlled double blind study and Knothe et al , Fernandes et al and Rajek et al which were controlled against conventional therapy.

Argenziano et al Patients Patients randomised to placebo where to be crossed over to receive iNO if no clinical response was obtained after 15 minutes.

Knothe et al Fernandes et al Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and systolic PAP were significantly reduced in both groups, but the difference between groups was not significant.

Rajek et al Patients were switched to the alternative study drug when PAP was consistently elevated and when weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass was difficult because of right heart failure.

Weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass was successful in all patients in the iNO group and failed in six patients in the PGE1 group.

In summary for the 10 randomised controlled adult trials. In all studies, iNO treatment maintained or improved cardiac function.

It should be noted that the adult studies have some methodological limitations such as the relatively low total number of patients included in the trials and the heterogeneity of the trials.

Nitric oxide consistently induced base pair mutations in bacterial reverse mutation assays and indications of mutagenicity in mammalian cell mouse lymphoma forward mutation assays, most likely due to peroxynitrites and reactive O 2 species generated by oxidation of NO.

Mutagenic activity of NO has been inconsistently reported in literature in other mammalian cells in vitro. Nitric oxide induced gene mutations in rat lung cells in vivo.

Effects in non-clinical studies were observed only at exposures considered sufficiently in excess of the maximum human exposure indicating little relevance to clinical use.

No carcinogenicity studies have been conducted. VasoKINOX is indicated in conjunction with ventilator support and other appropriate active substances to selectively decrease pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with perioperative pulmonary hypertension in conjunction with heart surgery.

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or any of the excipients. Newborns dependent on a right-to-left shunt or with a 'malignant' left-right arterial canal.

The controlled flow of ppm VasoKINOX is delivered to the ventilator circuit via the injector tube where it is diluted by the ventilator gas flow to the concentration set by the operator.

This concentration must not exceed 20 ppm. The delivery system must provide a constant inhaled nitric oxide concentration irrespective of the ventilator.

Rebound pulmonary hypertension syndrome following abrupt discontinuation. When patients treated with iNO are to be transported, continuous administration of iNO should be ensured throughout the transport.

Weaning from iNO must be progressive and carried out with precaution. Methaemoglobin production. After inhalation, the terminal compounds of nitric oxide found in the systemic circulation are mainly methaemoglobin and nitrate.

Methaemoglobin concentration in the blood should be monitored in all patients. Although a significant increase in methaemoglobin is uncommon where its initial level is low, this should be tested prior to treatment, then regularly throughout administration.

If the methaemoglobin level exceeds 2. The administration of a reducing agent such as methylene blue should be considered.

Formation of NO 2. NO 2 rapidly forms in gas mixtures containing NO and O 2 , and NO may in this way cause airway inflammation and damage.

Prior to his infamous involvement in the Burke and Hare murders, Robert Knox was a renowned lecturer of anatomy, esteemed zoologist, ethnologist and doctor.

Knox was born to Mary nee Scherer and Robert Knox, a mathematics and natural philosophy teacher. During his time at the University he was twice president of the undergraduate club the Royal Physical Society.

Following his graduation in , Knox joined the army where he was posted to Brussels to attend to the wounded from the Battle of Waterloo.

On returning to Scotland in , following stays in both France and South Africa, he was a key force in establishing a museum of anatomy and pathology at the College of Surgeons.

Knox became Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh during which time he was involved in setting up a major anatomical school where he was famed for his gory lectures.

Despite his reputation as a distinguished lecturer, Robert Knox is best remembered for his involvement in the West Port murders.

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No specific studies have been carried out in elderly patients. Paediatric use. The safety and efficacy of VasoKINOX in premature infants less than 34 weeks of gestation have not yet been established.

The maximum recommended dose in children is 20 ppm. Clinical data supporting the suggested dose in the age range of years is limited.

The long term consequences of the use of nitric oxide in children for the approved indication have not been established.

Inhalation exposure of rats whole body, 6 hours per day from post-natal days birth to 8 days following weaning resulted in reduced body weights and reduced body weight gain without compensatory growth over the post-natal days period.

The clinical relevance of these findings is uncertain. Effects on laboratory tests. No data available. No interaction studies have been performed.

Administration with O 2 - formation of NO 2. In the presence of O 2 , NO is rapidly oxidised to form derivatives that are toxic for the bronchial epithelium and the alveolocapillary membrane.

Nitrogen dioxide is the principal compound formed. The oxidation rate is proportional to the initial concentrations of NO and O 2 in the inhaled air, and to the duration of contact between NO and O 2.

Its concentration should remain below 0. See Section 4. NO donor compounds. It is possible that NO donor compounds such as sodium nitroprusside and nitroglycerin, potentiates the risk of developing methaemoglobinaemia.

There is an increased risk of methaemoglobin formation if substances with a known tendency to increase methaemoglobin concentrations, or known to produce oxidative damage to the erythrocytes, are administered concomitantly with NO e.

Substances known to cause increased methaemoglobin levels, or to produce oxidative damage to the erythrocytes, should be used with caution during therapy with iNO.

Other vasodilators. Available data suggest additive effects of inhaled NO and other vasodilators acting by the cGMP or cAMP systems Phosphodiesterase inhibitors, Prostacycline , on pulmonary vasodilator effects and right ventricular performance.

Therefore, administration of iNO in combination with these drugs should be done with caution. A possible synergy between the platelet anti aggregation effects of NO and prostacyclin and its analogues is suggested but has not been clinically demonstrated or detected.

Nitric Oxide has been administered with dopamine, dobutamine, steroids, surfactant, and high-frequency ventilation.

Effects on fertility. No fertility studies have been performed. Category B2 Animal studies are insufficient with respect to reproductive and developmental toxicity.

It is not known if NO can cause foetal harm when administered to pregnant women or affect reproductive capacity because of a limited amount of data of the use of NO in pregnant-women.

A review summarised the use of iNO in 10 pregnant women with PHT who received iNO in late pregnancy dose range from 5 to 80 ppm for minutes to hours.

Elevation in maternal methaemoglobin levels has not been reported. No data on the effect of iNO on the foetus is available. A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue VasoKINOX therapy taking into account the benefit of breast feeding for the child and the benefit of therapy for the woman.

Summary of safety profile. Approximately children and over adults received iNO the exact number cannot be determined in the included publications and clinical studies conducted by the sponsor.

The most common adverse effects of iNO are as follows: Abrupt discontinuation of the administration of iNO may cause rebound reaction such as increased PAP and hypoxaemia, precipitating cardiovascular collapse.

The rebound may be seen early as well as late during therapy. After inhalation, one of the terminal compounds of NO found in the systemic circulation is methaemoglobin, which may cause increased methaemoglobinaemia.

No additional adverse effects were identified in studies conducted by the sponsor. Published data from paediatric and adult studies in cardiac surgery support the known safety profile for iNO.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions. See Table 1. Most of the adverse effects reported are from publications, the reporting of adverse effects was not standardised in publications and may be limited; adverse effects and figures are sourced from studies for which not all safety data was published in detail and post-marketing surveillance which was not conducted by the sponsor or available to the sponsor.

The incidence of adverse effects are only approximations. Post-marketing experience. Based on post-marketing experience, accidental; exposure to iNO in hospital staff has been associated with chest discomfort, dizziness, dry throat, dyspnoea and headache.

The post-marketing surveillance did not identify other adverse effects than those already listed. Reporting suspected adverse effects.

Reporting suspected adverse effects after registration of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit-risk balance of the medicinal product.

Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions to www. Prescription of NO should be supervised by a physician experienced in cardiothoracic anaesthesia and intensive care.

Prescription should be limited to those cardio-thoracic units that have received adequate training in the use of a NO delivery system.

VasoKINOX should only be delivered according to an anaesthetist's or intensive care physician's prescription. VasoKINOX should be used only after respiratory support has been optimised, according to the current clinical practices.

Inhaled NO is usually given in addition to other standard treatment regimes in the peri-operative setting, including inotropic and vasoactive medicinal products.

Dosage is determined by the patient's clinical condition severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension and patient's age. In children and adults, the recommended starting dose of iNO is 10 ppm of inhaled gas.

The lowest effective dose should be administered. The effects of iNO are rapid usually observed within minutes.

In case of insufficient response the dose may be titrated after a minimum of 10 minutes. The maximum recommended is 20 ppm. Consideration should be given to discontinuation of treatment if no beneficial physiological effects are apparent after a minute trial of therapy.

Treatment may be initiated at any time point in the peri-operative course to lower pulmonary pressure. In clinical studies treatment was often initiated before separation from Cardio Pulmonary Bypass.

The duration of treatment in this situation is variable according to the pathology, the population treated and pulmonary circulation remodelling.

Inhaled NO has been given for time periods up to 7 days in the perioperative setting, but common treatment times are hours. Clinical data supporting the suggested dose in the age range of years is limited Discontinuation of therapy.

Attempts to wean iNO should be started as soon as the haemodynamics have stabilised in conjunction to weaning from ventilator and inotropic support.

The withdrawal of iNO treatment should be performed in a stepwise manner and under close monitoring of PAP.

The following withdrawal technique can be proposed. The dosage should be incrementally reduced to 1 ppm at least 30 minutes, with close monitoring of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures and oxygenation, and then turned off.

Too rapid weaning from iNO treatment carries the risk of an increase in pulmonary artery pressure with subsequent haemodynamic instability re-bound effect.

Endotracheopulmonary use. VasoKINOX should be administered in the inspiratory limb of the ventilator, and in any case as close as possible to the patient.

Direct intratracheal administration must be avoided due to the risk of local lesions occurring on contact with the mucous membrane.

Before initiation of therapy, during set-up, ensure that the device setting is in agreement with the cylinder gas concentration.

Furthermore, the contact time between NO and O 2 in the inspiration circuit should be kept to a minimum to limit the risk toxic oxidation by-product production in the inhaled gas see Section 4.

With ventilators in sequential discontinuous flow mode, the NO administration system must be capable of managing gas peak concentration.

Synchronised sequential administration at the inspiratory phase is recommended to avoid NO concentration peaks and bolus effect induced by continuous administration of the gas.

The effective dose is not related to the type of ventilation manual or mechanical. Backup gas cylinders must be available to provide timely replacement.

In case of transport of patient treated by iNO, it will be advisable to make sure of the preservation of a continuous administration of the iNO during the transport.

Hospital personnel have to be trained before using VasoKINOX with respect to delivery system and treatment monitoring. The supplier provides training to relevant hospital personnel, and ongoing hour, 7 days a week technical support service, on the proper use of VasoKINOX in conjunction with the nitric oxide gas delivery system.

Administration and instruction for use. This may damage the regulator seal; evacuate exhaled gases outside avoiding areas in which they may accumulate.

Before use, it should be ensured that the room has the appropriate ventilation system for evacuating gases in the event of an accident or accidental leaks; as nitric oxide is colourless and odourless, it is recommended using a gas detection system in all rooms in which it is to be used or stored to monitor for excessive ambient concentrations; personnel exposure limits should not be exceeded see Exposure limit for medical personnel.

All equipment, including connectors, tubing and breathing circuits, used in the delivery of iNO must be made of materials compatible with the gas.

The only recommended metal is stainless steel and the only tested polymers are polyethylene PE and polypropylene PP.

Monitoring of treatment. Monitoring formation of nitrogen dioxide NO 2. Nitrogen dioxide can form rapidly in gaseous mixtures containing NO and O 2 , which may cause an inflammatory reaction and airway lesions.

The concentrations of iNO, NO 2 and FiO 2 must be measured continuously in the inspiratory circuit near to the patient using the appropriate certified equipment Australian approved medical device.

The concentration of NO 2 in the inhaled air must remain as low as possible. Immediately prior to each patient initiation, proper procedure must be applied to purge the system of NO 2.

If there is an unexpected change in VasoKINOX concentration, the delivery system should be assessed for malfunction and the analyser should be recalibrated.

During treatment. If at any time the NO 2 concentration exceeds 0. For discontinuous-flow volumetric ventilators, spirometry monitoring can detect an increase in VasoKINOX flow if a difference is observed between the inspired volume and expired volume.

The pressure in the VasoKINOX cylinder must be displayed to allow for rapid replacement of an empty cylinder so as not to abruptly interrupt treatment.

Replacement cylinders must be kept available nearby. Monitoring formation of methaemoglobin. Neonates and infants are known to have diminished methaemoglobin reductase activity compared to adults, and therefore a more rapid rise in methaemoglobin can occur in infants than in adults.

Methaemoglobin level should be measured within one hour after initiation of VasoKINOX therapy, using an analyser which can reliably distinguish between foetal haemoglobin and methaemoglobin.

Although it is unusual for the methaemoglobin level to increase significantly if the first level is low, it is prudent to repeat methaemoglobin measurements every one to two days.

Exposure limit for medical personnel. For the above recommendations to be met, a monitoring program for NO and NO 2 content in the atmosphere must be in place.

The effects of this medicine on a person's ability to drive and use machines was not assessed as part of its registration.

A high concentration of NO 2 can provoke acute pulmonary lesions and cases of pulmonary oedema have been reported after administration of high concentrations of iNO.

Course of action in the event of accidental patient overdose: symptomatic treatment of respiratory disorders, in the event of persistent methaemoglobinaemia despite the reduction or interruption of the treatment, an intravenous injection of vitamin C or methylene blue, or blood transfusion should be considered depending on the patient's clinical condition.

Course of action in the event of massive inhalation due to accidental leaks: medical observation for at least 24 hours; in the event of respiratory disorders, symptomatic treatment should be administered.

For information on the management of overdose, contact the Poisons Information Centre on Australia. The expiry date can be found on the packaging.

This medicinal product does not require any special temperature storage conditions. The installation of a NO pipeline system with supply station of gas cylinders, fixed network and terminal units is forbidden.

Storage in the pharmacy department. Cylinders must be stored in a clean, well-ventilated, locked room reserved for the storage of gases for medicinal use.

These should be protected so as to avoid breakage and falling. They should also be kept away from any oxidizing and combustible materials and humidity.

Storage in the user department. Cylinders must be installed in an equipped area with appropriate equipment to maintain them in a vertical position at all times.

Cylinders must be protected to avoid breakage or falling and be kept away from any sources of heat or ignition, oxidizing and combustible materials and humidity.

Cylinder transportation. Cylinders must be transported using the appropriate equipment trolley equipped with chains, barriers or rings to protect them from breakage or falls.

During inter- or intra-hospital transfer of patients receiving NO treatment, the cylinders must be firmly secured to hold them in the vertical position and to avoid the risk of falling.

Special attention must also be paid to the securing of the pressure regulator to avoid the risk of accidental breakage. Instruction for cylinder disposal.

VasoKINOX is available in the following sizes: 5 L: aluminium alloy cylinder white painted body, turkish blue painted shoulder , equipped with a stainless steel residual pressure valve with a specific outlet connector.

Reasonable care is taken to provide accurate information at the time of creation. This information is not intended as a substitute for medical advice and should not be exclusively relied on to manage or diagnose a medical condition.

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